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Principles of Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry is base on the following Twelve Principles:

one Stop Wastage:
Design chemical syntheses to prevent waste, leaving no waste.
   
two Safer chemicals and products:
Design chemical products that are fully effective, yet have minimal or no toxicity.
   
three Less hazardous chemical syntheses:
Design syntheses to use and generate substances with little or no toxicity to humans and the environment.
   
four Renewable Raw Material:
Use renewable raw materials and feedstock. They are often made from agricultural products or are the waste of other processes; depleting raw material is made from fossil fuels or is mined.
   
five Catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents:
One can minimize waste by using catalytic reactions. Catalysts can be used in small amounts and can carry out a single reaction multiple times.
   
six Chemical derivatives:
Derivatives use additional reagents and generate waste, so one should avoid using blocking or protecting groups or any temporary modifications.
   
seven Maximize atom economy:
Syntheses should be designed, so that the final product contains the maximum proportion of the starting materials.
   
eight Safer solvents and reaction conditions:
Solvents, separation agents, or other auxiliary chemicals should be avoided. If necessary, use innocuous chemicals. In case of solvents, try water or eco friendly solvents.
   
nine Increase energy efficiency:
Try to run chemical reactions at room temperature and pressure, to save energy.
   
ten Chemicals and products should degrade after use:
Design chemical products that break down into harmless, environmentally friendly substances after use.
   
eleven Analyze in real time to prevent pollution:
Methodologies for real-time monitoring and control, must be developed to eliminate or at least minimize by-products.
   
twelve Minimize the potential for accidents:
Chemicals and their solid, liquid or gas forms must be designed, minimising the potential for chemical accidents including explosions, fires, and releases to the environment.